English grammar does not have a system that is decisive in learning the language. The main assistant in this matter will be a dictionary.
Word formation in the English grammar
Often in English, as in other foreign languages, students are faced with one difficulty: words that belong to one part of the speech, by different methods go into the other.
I want to note that word formation in the English language is not always as unambiguous as it seems in reality. Today there are 2 prevailing ways: conversion and compositing.
A compounding is the addition of several words into one whole. More often such words are written together or through a hyphen. A great rarity, when separated. For example, to pin point.
Conversion is the transformation from one part of speech to another. For example, brave - the brave( bold - brave).More often, not only nouns but also verbs are subject to conversion.
Ways of word formation in the English language
1. Prefixing is when a prefix is attached to the
4. Change of accent in the word: to pro `gress - `progress( development - development).
5. Alternation of sounds in a word: to use [ju: z] - use [ju: s]( use - use).
6. Word composition: watch - watch, man - man - watchman - watchman.
7. Abbreviation: telephone - phone.
8. Abbreviations( letters or initials) - USA - United States of America.
9. Telescopic words: sea and laboratory - sea-lab.
Word formation in English on this list does not end. Only the commonly used methods are shown here.
I want to pay special attention to such a way of word formation as affixation. In ordinary language, this method is similar to a puzzle or designer, which must be collected in pieces and details. So it is in affixation. Collected from pieces of words are easier to remember. Each part has its own meaning.
Let's consider the topic of word formation in more detail with the help of a noun.
When adding a suffix -ade to the noun, denoting the result and the process of certain actions or adopting words from French or Spanish. For example, block - blockade.
When adding a suffix -age, which denotes any content( units of measure).For example, percent - percentage.
When adding a suffix -dom, which has 3 designations: territory, state and quality. For example, wise - wisdom.
When adding a suffix -ess, expressing a feminine noun( animate).For example, lion - lioness.
When adding -hood to the noun, it expresses belonging to a group or state. For example, brother - brotherhood.
When adding the suffix -ese to the noun, it expresses belonging to a particular nation. For example, Japan - Japanese.
When adding the suffix -ian to the noun;-an, also expresses belonging to any nation. For example, Russia is Russian.
One of the easiest ways of word formation is conversion. In this way, the word that has undergone word formation does not change either in its pronunciation or in writing. English has many similar cases. Here are examples of absolute conversions:
Water - to water - if in the first case the word is a noun, then in word formation it becomes a verb( water - water).
Sometimes the end result of word formation means the process of action. For example:
Fish - to fish. The first word is translated as a fish, and the second is a process( to fish).
Verbs can also be formed from adjectives. For example:
Slim - to slim. Adjective "lean" turns into the verb "lose weight."
If, on the one hand, the conversion helps students to understand and understand the language, then on the other hand it will lead to a lot of difficulties during the translation. To translate the text, you need to determine the part of the speech to which the word belongs, pay attention to the content of the text and the articles used in it.
The concept of word formation in tables
In order to explain the word formation in English, the table can be a good help further. It shows us the often used suffixes of verbs.
To show the essence of the prefixes in the topic "Word formation in English", the table below represents the most common ones. This information is especially useful for beginners.
We further study word formation in English. The following table lists the suffixes. In this case we are talking about adjectives.
In order to understand more deeply what word formation is in English, it is necessary to perform test tasks on this topic. The following exercises and testing will help people who study English independently.
Word formation in English. Exercises
Your attention is represented by simplified exercises. Theme - word formation in English and practical exercises.
1. In the following exercises, choose the correct form of word formation:
1.1.He did it very easily. Hi did it very. ...
1.2.I can learn this material very quickly. I can learn this material very. ..
1.3.Luckily, he survived.... he survived.
1.4.He did it very boldly. He did it very. ..
1.5.I'm terribly sorry! I am. .. sorry.
2. Translate into English:
2.1.Make( action) - remake.
2.2.Make( goods) - remake.
2.3.Read - reread.
2.4.Play( music) - play again.
2.5.Tie - untie.
2.6.Cover( with something) - open.
2.7.To fasten( on a button) - to unbutton.
2.8.To execute( work) - to refuse.
Definition of word formation in the text
3. Find in the text words obtained by word formation, and determine how they are formed.
The first president suggested destroying of some old fashioned buildings in the capital of his country. And also he wanted to build a lot of beautiful bus-stops.
The topic "Word formation in English" is quite difficult. Without practical lessons, it will be difficult to master. Therefore, to consolidate theoretical knowledge, it is necessary to pass a small test "Word formation in English".
1. They are _______happy:
a) un b) dis c) in.
2. He is a ________
a) docter b) mechanic c) buildor.
3. You are ________
a) impolite b) immoral c) invention.
4. This is _____________
a) harmfull b) harmless c) worthwhile.
5. He is very _________popular:
a) in b) dis c) un
6. I pay for it ____________
a) weakly b) monthly c) every yearly.
7. I am success ______________
a) ion b) ful c) less.
Word formation in English is a rather complex topic, and in order to correctly distinguish all the ways of word formation, it is necessary to learn only the methods often used. Good luck in learning English!
Answers to tasks and testing
Answers to the tests:
1-a, 2-b, 3-a, 4-c, 5-c, 6-b, 7-b.